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European Prostitution Laws

The United States is not somewhere we are ever going to work. And Smooci notwithstanding, I do not see us going into the Far East, South America, Middle East or Eastern Europe. So, I will just discuss Europe. 

There are a number of subcategories within the legal frameworks. So though we are focusing on Barcelona escorts, it is worth looking a little wider.

  • Countries where prostitution and managing brothels and escorts is legal: Greece, Austria (since 2014, Belgium (informally), Germany (since 2002), Netherlands, Switzerland,  
  • Countries where prostitution is legal but managing a brothel or escorts is illegal: United Kingdom, Denmark (since 1999), Italy, Portugal, Luxemburg, Monaco,  
  • Countries where prostitution is legal but customers are prosecuted: Ireland (since 2017), France (disastrously since 2016),  
  • Countries where all sex work is illegal: Gibraltar(!) 

Spain, as you would expect, is a complicated anomaly. Prostitution itself is legal in Spain, but pimping is not. Owning an establishment where prostitution takes place is legal if the owner neither derives financial gain from prostitution nor hires any person for the purposes of selling sex, because prostitution is not considered a job, and has no legal recognition (though income from prostitution is, of course, taxable) Most regions do not regulate prostitution, but the government of Catalonia offers licenses for persons “to gather people to practice prostitution”.

Strictly speaking, we should make it clear that we charge a commission for advertising and answering the telephone. Not for prostitution. 

On the face of the above, the law is changing in opposite directions in Europe over roughly the same timescale.  

Germany and Austria effectively legalised the sex industry (not the same as or good as decriminalisation) in 2002 and 2014 respectively.  Denmark decriminalised prostitution (but not brothel keeping or managing escorts) in 1999. 

France and Ireland introduced laws criminalising the buyers of sex in 2016 and 2017, following Sweden and Norway, who did the same 1999 and 2008. In the cases of France and Ireland, it immediately led to problems (lower prices, increased violence against sex workers, lower condom use) and sex workers have suffered. Sex workers continue to protest against the laws and academics repeat their findings, but we have seen that politicians will never let facts get in the way of their narrative. Especially not in ostensibly Roman Catholic countries.  

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Women Not Protecting Women

It must be said that the more extensive ladies’ development still avoids sex labourers and even effectively battles against them. Continuously in the anecdotal structure of battling dealing. Which, as we probably am aware, truly isn’t the issue that individuals describe it. Horrendous when it occurs, yet just not so normal.

Society should discover methods for changing their demeanour and lawful ways to deal with the more extensive sex industry. In any case, rationale is probably not going to have wherever in the discussion. Government officials don’t follow up on reality. Even in Spain, where there are no laws at all related to the work of Madrid escorts. They follow up on what they see to be the popular’s assessment; which is exhibited by who yells most intense and undermines their re-appointment or advancement possibilities. A solitary model will show the point.

An escape clause made sex work, rehearsed away from public scrutiny, lawful in the State of Rhode Island somewhere in the range of 2003 and 2009.Baylor University financial analyst Scott Cunningham and his associates found that during those years the sex exchange developed. Yet, Cunningham focuses to some other significant discoveries: During that time-span the quantity of assaults answered to police in the state declined by over a third. What’s more, gonorrhoea among all ladies declined by 39 percent. Obviously, changes in prostitution laws probably won’t be the main source, yet Cunningham says, “the exchange off is in the event that you make it more secure somewhat, you develop the business.”

Rhode Island made sex work unlawful again in 2009, to some degree under strain from some enemy of dealing advocates. That is the thing; the discussion about sex work consistently gets connected to dealing, and consistently without any realities or actualities made up on the spot from an example of one. Certainties won’t sell society or legislators. What’s more, legislators won’t push forward of society.

Be that as it may, society is moving quickly toward the acknowledgement of prostitution and sex work. This can be seen effectively in the volume of enormous spending plan and prominent TV projects and movies centring on or highlighting sex work; The Girlfriend Experience (film and TV), The Client List, The Deuce, Hung, Harlots, Secret Diary Of A London Call Girl, Game Of Thrones, Tipping The Velvet, Cathouse, West World, After Porn Ends, Hot Girls Wanted and Hustlers.

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Decriminalising sex work

Amnesty International and The Economist are very different organisations, but they have reached similar conclusions on policies regarding sex markets. Last August, the International Council of Amnesty International decided to back the complete decriminalisation of prostitution. Decriminalising prostitution, they reasoned, would better protect the human rights of sex workers, and be better for the health and safety of all involved. The Amnesty’s International Council took care to declare opposition to criminalising sex work for both clients and for sex workers. Criminalisation both on the demand side (clients) and the supply side (sex workers) implies pushing this ‘market’ into the hidden economy, increasing the risks that sex workers face.

Perhaps less predictably, The Economist, in a report on paid sex in 2014, also argued for a complete liberalisation of the market and against criminalisation policies. Robert Skidelsky, a prominent Keynesian economist and member of the House of Lords, recently joined the cause. In the interest of protecting the health and safety of sex workers, he advocated against criminalisation and in favour of regulation of the market.

At the same time, a number of prominent actors and organisations continue to advocate the so-called ‘Swedish approach’. Since its adoption in Norway and Iceland, this is more accurately called the ‘Nordic approach’, and is enshrined in the Kvinnofrid (violence against women) act of 1999, which condemns the industry as a locus of female oppression, and aims to combat the oppression of sex workers by criminalising sex workers’ clients. The Swedish government has promoted the approach domestically and abroad, through public education and conferences, fact sheets and intense lobbying at the EU and the UN.

As economists, we believe that public policy ought to be based on relative welfare considerations. In other words, under which arrangements are the actors, and the public, better off? Throughout our research on the economics of sex work, we have asked ourselves a set of basic questions around the welfare of those involved. What do we know about the agents, the prostitutes, the pimps, the clients and others? What types of people are they in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics, behaviours and motivations? Surveys and studies provided the data. How do they compare with the population as a whole? Importantly, as economists, we were particularly interested in the various institutional arrangements – streets, brothels, parlours, apartments – in which different actors might act, and how these respond to different regulatory arrangements. Regulation, after all, is not one thing, but rather exists on a wide spectrum, with different modes and degrees of criminalisation, decriminalisation and legalisation.

We have spent 15 years researching these questions using data from US and UK clients and an international sample of sex workers from eastern European and former Soviet Union countries, as well as from Africa, Latin America, China and South East Asian countries. We have worked with many collaborators and subjected our work to extensive peer review and professional criticism in papers, conferences and books. Here’s what we can tell you.

Sex workers, or prostitutes, are not just women. They are also men and transgender people. They face risks to their health, risks of violent assault, and risk of fraud (not getting paid for their services). In every case, these risks are higher where prostitution is criminalised, partly because criminalisation makes collaboration with both medical personnel and law enforcement more difficult. Criminalisation of sex work also makes the detection of under-age or trafficked people more difficult.

Perhaps surprisingly, our research on sexually exploited trafficked women shows that women who work in the streets are in some ways better off than sex workers in parlours, clubs or hotels. Street workers enjoy more freedom of movement, suffer less physical and sexual abuse, and are more likely to have access to health services than women who work in parlours, clubs or hotels. These market dynamics of sex work apply to women trafficked into sex work, too. For both clients and for sex workers, demand-side and supply-side, criminalisation pushes the market into secluded and, for the workers, isolating places. Flats, clubs and massage parlours are more separate from the rest of society. The welfare of sexually trafficked women decreases in these dangerous environments.

Sex workers’ clients are mostly men, but not exclusively. They are, for the most part, average guys. When we matched client data in both the US and the UK with the rest of the male population, we found no difference between the two groups on most measures. Still, clients care about the effects of buying sex on their reputations, and they face more risk when prostitution is criminalised. But by and large, clients of sex workers tend to be risk-takers. There is a high correlation between paying for sex and engaging in other risky behaviours. To many men, criminalised prostitution is actually more attractive than decriminalised or legal sex work. So pushing prostitution into the shadows not only makes sex work more dangerous, it actually increases demand.

Maria Laura Di Tommaso & Marina Della Giusta

This article was originally published at Aeon and has been republished under Creative Commons.

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What s Always On?

In Marbella, some things never go out of fashion. Others are here today, gone tomorrow which can be confusing to people returning to a highly transitory environment. But what is always popular in Marbella and the Costa Del Sol?

The first and most obvious is the sun! Over 300 days a year of sunshine makes the Costa Del Sol a very attractive pace for visitors and ex-patriots from Northern Europe and Scandinavia. And in the summer the vast array of beaches are filled with tourists and locals of all shapes and sizes, though there is a distinct “changing of the guard” through the day. The Northern Europeans hit the beach early (fill in your own jokes about sunbed-claiming, towel-laying nationalities here! But the Spanish and Southern Europeans tend to hit the beach after siesta time. Which, as an established local, I find a much more civilised way of doing things when the worst heat has gone from the day but you can still get a great tan if you want to.

All the beaches, incidentally, are public. The private beach clubs such as Nikki Beach, Ocean Club, and La Sala by the Sea are just positioned alongside the public beaches. So you can often enjoy the music, atmosphere and pretty people for free from your towel. And you can swim in the sea while they only have a crowded pool!

Sex is also pretty much always on the menu in Marbella. The tourists and locals all like to dress to impress, usually in high-bling style, and the sexy atmosphere has to be experienced to be believed. There really is a sex charged feel just walking down the street. And that is before thinking about selling sex as one of the major industries in Marbella and the Costa Del Sol, with escort agencies such as Marbella Beauties from The Marbella Escort Agency and 2nd Circle Marbella Escorts competing with dozens of brothels, clubs and hundreds of independents advertising in the local Sur newspaper.

Sex is certainly in the air in Marbella. And during the summer months it is also in the hotel rooms,villas, apartments sun loungers, beaches, cars and just about anywhere else you can imagine! Obviously people “hook up” all the time everywhere, but in very places, such as Marbella, is it so obviously the entire point. In Ibiza there is a lot of “action” but most of the time it is about the clubs, chilling out and the overall experience. Marbella is about getting laid. As often as possible with as many damn fine looking people as possible. Whether they are professional Marbella escorts or enthusiastic amateurs enjoying the hormone raising glamour of one of Europe’s hottest locations (in all senses), sex is always in fashion on the Costa Del Sol.

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TOP-DRAWER MADRID AND BARCELONA ESCORTS

One would probably believe that the multitude of escorts agents and unconnected whores would undoubtedly cause so much competition that emerging as the highest quality courtesan agent in Barcelona & Madrid a difficult test. Without a doubt any type of miracle method needs to be undoubtedly really obscure to put these people beyond that much opposition? Apparently not right here is without a doubt their opinion of this. Rather these professionals suspect it is undoubtedly remarkably basic. These professionals procure the outright best skilled professional putas from all over the world simply by providing wonderful support service, really good patrons and bunches of care. Next these experts guarantee that just what these people proffer to customers is undoubtedly just what these people indeed are given. Zero fictitious shots. They never compose fictional information. Zero un-notified replacements. Solely the honest situation. Also most importantly, try to keep clients and girls delighted, free from danger as well as discreet.

Merely ponder it from the perspective of the customer for a moment. How stressful will need to it be truly to be undoubtedly unsure whether the woman who rings your doorbell will certainly be definitely the goddess of your dreams. Men fear whether the woman may be truly the perfect and stunning model that you have carefully chosen from the website, or a podgy moose with bad hair, dodgy teeth and no brain or conversation. Or that she will most likely be definitely accompanied by a scary minder and rip off their belongings? The experience that a customers is really paying for should be really fun and relaxing. Not stress followed by relief that it is undoubtedly over!

Barcelona and Madrid are really blessed in enjoying an elite escorts agent to deal with the lovemaking concerns of their manly natives and travelers. 2nd Circle Escorts Barcelona presents top-drawer high end call girls on call in both the boom towns.

The builders and also administrators of 2nd Circle Madrid Escorts are definitely certain that these professionals enjoy a modus operandi for good results which will likely make certain that these individuals emerge against the various other courtesan agents. These guys don’t ever intend to be undoubtedly the most popular courtesan agent in Barcelona and Madrid. These experts solely prefer to be definitely the top.

Marbella escort blonde red dressThe internet is truly jam packed loaded with escorts agents. Barcelona and Madrid enjoys hundreds, together with the bordellos that supply calls to the clients location. With the legal statutes in Madrid and Barcelona it is definitely quite legitimate to sell or buy sexual activity. Which in turn guarantees that there certainly are undoubtedly at the same time a tremendous wide variety of strip bars and cathouses in each of the areas.

2nd Circle Madrid and Barcelona is really well entrenched in the local market. These professionals have been definitely around for a few years, working at the higher end of the market and are undoubtedly well known for the quality of the girls that these individuals represent and the friendly, honest and straightforward way that these individuals deal with everything.

With 2nd Circle, customers know that the girl who arrives at their door should be without a doubt the one that these professionals selected and whose photos these guys have seen. These guys also know that there will definitely be undoubtedly no bullshit with prices, or with the girl legging it out of the room at the first possible moment. And no large leather-jacketed Eastern European men waiting outside the door!

Courtesans who work in Barcelona and Madrid with 2nd Circle know that their preferences will likely be definitely respected, that these people will likely be really told the truth and that if these professionals really don’t want a particular kind of job, these experts wont be really hassled into taking it.

2nd Circle is without a doubt setting the bar extremely high for anyone who prefers to compete seriously with them in Barcelona and Madrid. I doubt few will most likely try, as it is really easier to try and work at the bottom of the market.